There is at present, much optimism about the possibility of finding selective anticancer drugs that will eliminate the cytotoxic side effects associated with conventional cancer chemotherapy. This hope is based on uncovering many novel molecular targets that are cancer-specific, which will allow the targeting of cancer cells while normal cells are spared. Thus far encouraging results have been obtained with several of these novel agents at the preclinical level, and clinical trials have begun. These targets are involved at one level or more in tumor biology, including tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Novel targets for which advances are being made include the following growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor and HER-2/neu (proliferation); the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and the basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (angiogenesis) etc.